WHAT IS ULTRASONOGRAPHY?

Ultrasonography uses high-frequency sound (ultrasound) waves to produce images of internal organs and other tissues. A device called a transducer converts electrical current into sound waves, which are sent into the body’s tissues. Sound waves bounce off structures in the body and are reflected back to the transducer, which converts the waves into electrical signals. A computer converts the pattern of electrical signals into an image, which is displayed on a monitor and recorded on film, on videotape, or as a digital computer image. No x-rays are used.
Ultrasonography is painless, relatively inexpensive, and considered very safe, even during pregnancy.

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PROCEDURE FOR ULTRASONOGRAPHY

 

If the abdomen is being examined, people may be asked to refrain from eating and drinking for several hours before the test.Usually, the examiner places thick gel on the skin over the area to be examined to ensure good sound transmission. A handheld transducer is placed on the skin and moved over the area to be evaluated.To evaluate some body parts, the examiner inserts the transducer into the body—for example, into the vagina to better image the uterus and ovaries or into the anus to image the prostate gland.To evaluate the heart, the examiner sometimes attaches the transducer to a viewing tube called an endoscope and passes it down the throat into the esophagus. This procedure is called transesophageal echocardiography.

OBSTETRIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY

 

Obstetric Ultrasonography is the application of medical ultrasonography to obstetrics, in which sonography is used to visualize the embryo or fetus in its mother’s uterus (womb). The procedure is a standard part of prenatal care, as it yields a variety of information regarding the health of the mother.

How does it work?

Ultrasound waves are produced by a transducer, which can both emit ultrasound waves, as well as detect the ultrasound echoes reflected back. In most cases, the active elements in ultrasoundtransducers are made of special ceramic crystal materials called piezoelectrics. These materials are able to produce sound waves when an electric field is applied to them, but can also work in reverse, producing an electric field when a sound wave hits them. When used in an ultrasoundscanner, the transducer sends out a beam of sound waves into the body. The sound waves are reflected back to the transducer by boundaries between tissues in the path of the beam (e.g. the boundary between fluid and soft tissue or tissue and bone)

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